The exchange of photosynthetic intermediates between Kranz mesophyll and bundle sheath cells in C4 plants may be affected by low temperatures. Bilska and Sowiński study chilling-tolerant and chilling-sensitive varieties of Zea mays and find that low temperatures result in changes in the ultrastructure of plasmodesmata, which inhibit transfer of photosynthate to the phloem and hence export from the leaf. Closure of plasmodesmata appears to be related to the action of calreticulin; however, callose deposition is found to be a secondary effect of chilling.
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