Sexually deceptive Ophrys orchids attract specific pollinators, and shifts in these pollinators may drive speciation with a progenitor–derivative pattern. Schlüter et al. find evidence for such a scenario in an east-Mediterranean species complex. Genetic analyses suggest that O. leucadica may be a progenitor species from which local endemics on Rhodes have evolved. In particular, the narrowly distributed O. parvula, pollinated by a different bee, shows the genetic hallmarks of a derivative species.