August Image: Apple Stigma

Detail of the stigma of a flower of apple, Malus × domestica

Detail of the stigma of a flower of apple. Click to expand.

This month the inset cover image shows a detail of the stigma of a flower of apple, Malus × domest­ica. The acquis­i­tion of stig­matic receptiv­ity is con­com­it­ant with secre­tion of ara­binogalactan pro­teins (AGPs, strained green) into the inter­cel­lu­lar spaces between cell walls (blue). The pres­ence of AGPs in the pis­til has been shown in diver­gent spe­cies, from mono­cots and eudicots to early-divergent angio­sperms, and hence this find­ing opens a way for an under­stand­ing of gly­copro­tein evol­u­tion mod­u­lat­ing pollen–pistil inter­ac­tions in angio­sperms. See Losada and Herrero.


Dave Frost is the Managing Editor of Annals of Botany. You can contact our Editorial Office at

1 Response

  1. Maria says:

    They can climb well, so they are able to go up trees and other tall plants.
    For apply­ing on the head first spray your hand and then rub onto dogs head to pre­vent eye irrit­a­tion and ingest­ing the chem­ical by your dog.
    You’ll find par­tic­u­lar tox­ins which des­troy bugs, how­ever, you must be cau­tious as improper use of chem­ical sub­stances could be harm­ful for your well being.

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