Co-flowering species can either compete for pollination services, have no effect on one another or facilitate one another by attracting more pollinators. Landry studies two mangrove species with overlapping flowering phenologies, Avicennia germinans and Laguncularia racemosa, in southern Florida and finds that when they co-flower A. germinans out-competes L. racemosa for pollinators. Hermaphrodites of L. racemosa self-pollinate autogamously when not visited by insects, so reduced visitation to their flowers reduces the frequency of outcrossing. Reduced outcrossing limits male reproductive success in this androdioecious species, which could lead to changes in the breeding system. The degree of overlap in flowering phenologies varies between years, so the effect on the mating and breeding system may differ between years.
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New in Annals of Botany