Tag Archives: Plant Science

Some good stuff in the recent edition of CBE Life Sciences Education

Diversity of flowering plant species
High School Students’ Learning and Perceptions of Phylogenetics of Flowering Plants. CBE Life Sci Educ vol. 13 no. 4 653-665 doi: 10.1187/cbe.14-04-0074
Basic phylogenetics and associated “tree thinking” are often minimized or excluded in formal school curricula. Informal settings provide an opportunity to extend the K–12 school curriculum, introducing learners to new ideas, piquing interest in science, and fostering scientific literacy. Similarly, university researchers participating in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) outreach activities increase awareness of college and career options and highlight interdisciplinary fields of science research and augment the science curriculum. To aid in this effort, we designed a 6-h module in which students utilized 12 flowering plant species to generate morphological and molecular phylogenies using biological techniques and bioinformatics tools. The phylogenetics module was implemented with 83 high school students during a weeklong university STEM immersion program and aimed to increase student understanding of phylogenetics and coevolution of plants and pollinators. Student response reflected positive engagement and learning gains as evidenced through content assessments, program evaluation surveys, and program artifacts. We present the results of the first year of implementation and discuss modifications for future use in our immersion programs as well as in multiple course settings at the high school and undergraduate levels.


Student Interpretations of Phylogenetic Trees in an Introductory Biology Course. CBE Life Sci Educ vol. 13 no. 4 666-676 doi: 10.1187/cbe.14-01-0003
Phylogenetic trees are widely used visual representations in the biological sciences and the most important visual representations in evolutionary biology. Therefore, phylogenetic trees have also become an important component of biology education. We sought to characterize reasoning used by introductory biology students in interpreting taxa relatedness on phylogenetic trees, to measure the prevalence of correct taxa-relatedness interpretations, and to determine how student reasoning and correctness change in response to instruction and over time. Counting synapomorphies and nodes between taxa were the most common forms of incorrect reasoning, which presents a pedagogical dilemma concerning labeled synapomorphies on phylogenetic trees. Students also independently generated an alternative form of correct reasoning using monophyletic groups, the use of which decreased in popularity over time. Approximately half of all students were able to correctly interpret taxa relatedness on phylogenetic trees, and many memorized correct reasoning without understanding its application. Broad initial instruction that allowed students to generate inferences on their own contributed very little to phylogenetic tree understanding, while targeted instruction on evolutionary relationships improved understanding to some extent. Phylogenetic trees, which can directly affect student understanding of evolution, appear to offer introductory biology instructors a formidable pedagogical challenge.


For they are jolly good fellows

The Royal Society/Wikimedia Commons.

The Royal Society/Wikimedia Commons.

We’d like to add our words of congratulations to two recently appointed plant-biological Fellows of the Royal Society (of London for Improving Natural Knowledge), Professor Liam Dolan FRS (Sherardian Professor of Botany, Department of Plant Sciences, University of Oxford, UK) and Professor David Beerling FRS (Professor of Palaeoclimatology, Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, UK). Fittingly, Dolan has been so honoured because his ‘pivotal discoveries illuminate our understanding of the interrelationships between the development of plants, their evolution and the Earth System’ (e.g. Victor Jones and Liam Dolan, 2012Timothy Lenton et al.,  2012). Beerling has received his accolade in view of how ‘his integration of ecosystem processes into a broad geosciences framework established the importance of the terrestrial biosphere in Earth’s climate history’ (e.g. Laura Llorens et al., 2009*; Beerling, 2012). In addition to their research activities both have also taken time out to help spread the botanical message and enthuse the next generation of plant biologists, Dolan in the highly regarded undergraduate textbook Plant Biology, and Beerling with The Emerald Planet. Dolan and Beerling join approximately 1600 other Fellows in the self-governing fellowship that is the Royal Society, and which includes ‘many of the world’s most distinguished scientists drawn from all areas of science, engineering, and medicine’. Well done to these most deserving botanists!


* It’s also rather gratifying to think that having their work published in the Annals of Botany will have helped both gentlemen attain fellowship!

[And congratulations, too, to those UK researchers working in plant sciences (including fungi…) who’ve been named in the global Top 1%. This listing of ‘Highly Cited Researchers 2014’ names more than 3000 people selected by having writing the greatest numbers of ‘reports officially designated by Essential Science IndicatorsSM as Highly Cited Papers’. I counted four female and 11 male notables from addresses – ‘primary affiliations’ – in north, central, west and south of England, but none from Scotland (or Wales or Northern Ireland). However, I am intrigued by included scientist ‘Philip J. White’, whose primary affiliation is shown as King Saud University, Saudi Arabia (KSU), because I found no mention of this notable person on KSU’s website. So, I wonder if this could actually be the Philip J. White currently at The James Hutton Institute (Invergowrie, Scotland, UK). That P. J. White has many other affiliations – Special Professor in Plant Ion Transport at the University of Nottingham (UK), Adjunct Professor at the University of Western Australia, Visiting Associate Professor at the Comenius University, Bratislava (Slovakia), Visiting Professor of the Brazilian Research Council, and an Honorary Lecturer at the University of Dundee (Scotland) – so maybe KSU was amongst those at the time the census was taken? Or perhaps there’s been a mistake? Or there’s another Philip J. White who is even more highly cited than James Hutton’s? So, will P. J. White please get in touch and put the record straight? – Ed.]

[Ed. – we are pleased to be able to report that the mystery has now been solved. The PJ White referred to is indeed Philip White of the James Hutton Institute who is also a Professor in Biology at the King Saud University. And we are more than happy to advise that the same PJ White is a co-author on one of the Annals of Botany’s most highly downloaded papers – White PJ and Broadley MR, Calcium in plants; Annals of Botany 92: 487-511, 2003.].

Bloody royal French gourd debunked

Image: Peter Woodard/Wikimedia Commons.

Image: Peter Woodard/Wikimedia Commons.

One of the most unusual plant-based items that has come to my notice recently is this rather ‘quirky’ item that sheds a forensic botany light on an episode of ‘regicide à la française’ when King Louis XVI had an unfortunate appointment with Madame la Guillotine. Big issues of whether mere mortals have the right to execute divinely ordained monarchs and the politics of late 19th century Europe aside, what is the plant connection? It’s not the wood that may have been used to construct the fearsome ‘engine of despatch’ (a euphemism if ever there was…), the guillotine. That would be far too obvious for Monsieur P. Cuttings (although the role of plant products in execution and torture has been given a fascinating scholarly treatment by Simcha Lev-Yadun of the University of Haifa- Oranim, Israel, in his paper ‘The ancient and modern ecology of execution’).‎ Rather, it concerns a gourd (the fruit of a member of the pumpkin family, the Cucurbitaceae) – which allegedly contained a handkerchief that had been stained with blood from the ill-fated monarch. (No, I don’t know why anybody might want to do this: chacun à son gout, I guess.) A fanciful tale certainly, but nevertheless one that we might like to believe. Sadly, when the DNA of the blood was subjected to various modern-day tests and analyses by Iñigo Olalde et al. this lovely story did not stand up – much like the late king himself after his sanguine appointment – to 21st century scrutiny. In a statement as beautifully crafted as the ‘pyrographically decorated’ gourd itself, the team conclude that, ‘although we cannot totally discard that the gourd’s sample belongs to Louis XVI on our genomic data alone, several lines of evidence, including the ancestry analysis and the functional interpretation of the genome fail to provide definitive support for the attribution of this specimen to the beheaded French king’. Le fin, enfin? (c’est la vie… or mort even…).


[This story is reminiscent of those concerning bottles of wine bought for vast sums of money in the belief that their contents are of immense value. In those cases (pun not intended, but duly noted…) the owners apparently never drink the contents for fear of discovering that the ‘wine’ is actually worthless. Seemingly for some things it’s simply best ‘not to know’; we seem prepared to accept that some cherished beliefs may not stand up to scrutiny so we choose not to scrutinise them. After all, if we studied everything we’d know everything. Sometimes it’s just nice to leave a few ‘mysteries’… – Ed.]

30 years of Astrobotany in Annals of Botany

“In the newspapers I used to read about shuttles going up and down all the time, but it bothered me a little bit that I never saw in any scientific journal any results of anything that had ever come out of the experiments on the shuttle that were supposed to be so important.”

Richard Feynman – What Do You Care What Other People Think?

STS-3 Shuttle mission launching

STS-3 departs on its mission. Photo: NASA.

On 22 March 1982, at 11:00 local time, the STS-3 mission, manned by Lousma and Fullerton launched in the space shuttle Columbia. Over the next eight days the shuttle was a platform for a few plant science experiments. A year and a half later these experiments were the basis of most of an Annals of Botany supplement Experiments on Plants Grown in Space.

It’s not that surprising Richard Feynman hadn’t seen these results. It’s easy to forget what a difference electronic communications have made. This issue of Annals of Botany would not have been issued as a PDF. Anyone wanting to see the results would have to physically locate an issue at a local library, not just click – which made it difficult for the public to access. NASA would also be issuing paper releases, and the news was the next shuttle flight not the one several missions back. So some science of immense public interest was kept to a few specialists.

The supplement has been digitised, and with current papers Annals of Botany makes its papers free access a year after print publication. In this case the delay is around thirty years. Quite a few things have changed since then, so the first paper in the supplement is a useful primer. Status and Prospects by Halstead and Dutcher gives a sense of the state of play for botany in the early 1980s.

It’s easy to be accustomed to space flight, and most ISS launches are not inherently newsworthy. The space shuttle was the vehicle that started the West’s perception of space travel as a mundane event. Halstead and Dutcher looked forward to the prospect of regular and affordable spaceflight.

Hindsight comes from Paul et al. and their paper Fundamental Plant Biology Enabled by the Space Shuttle in AmJBot. They comment on how plant science changed on shuttle flights, eventually taking advantage of the long-term missions offered by the International Space Station. One of the features of their paper is they point out there’s more to botany in space than the effect of gravity. By eliminating gravity you can explore other tropisms. They give a couple of examples, you can test for phototropism obviously, by manipulating light. But they also point out that subtle effects like ionic gradients become visible, once you eliminate the effect of gravitropism.

Aside from plans to colonise Mars, basic science means that exploration of microgravity and extreme environments will continue to be growth areas in botany. Over this week, we’ll be looking at the papers in our Space Shuttle issue and the science that they inspired after publication. Posts will be going live daily.

Today’s Papers

Halstead T.W. & Dutcher F.R. (1984). Status and Prospects, Annals of Botany, 54 (supp3) 3-18.

Paul A.L., Wheeler R.M., Levine L.G. & Ferl R.J. (2013). Fundamental Plant Biology Enabled by The Space Shuttle, American Journal of Botany, 100 (1) 226-234. DOI: 10.3732/ajb.1200338

Sponsor a genome…?

Image: Kurt Stüber/Wikimedia Commons.

Image: Kurt Stüber/Wikimedia Commons.

Crowdsourcing – ‘the practice of obtaining needed services, ideas, or content by soliciting contributions from a large group of people, and especially from an online community, rather than from traditional employees or suppliers’ –was the name of the game a few years ago. And in a biological context it was famously exploited to investigate protein folding using the program/‘game’ FoldIt. And so skillful have participants in this exercise become that their combined talents are now being exploited to design completely new proteins, such as new catalysts for photosynthesis.

Helping plant science we also now have crowdfunding, ‘the collection of finance from backers — the “crowd” — to fund an initiative and which usually occurs on Internet platforms’. And an intriguing example of this phenomenon is the call for funds to help sequence the genome of Azolla filiculoides by a team based at Professor Kathleen Pryer’s Seed-Free Vascular Plants laboratory at Duke University (Durham, North Carolina, USA), in collaboration with Professor Paul Wolf at Utah State University (USA). The funding opportunity is hosted by the appropriately named ‘Experiment’, a ‘platform for enabling new scientific discoveries’. Although you might expect universities to be funding the research, that has become increasingly difficult to secure and might not always be forthcoming, especially in cases of ‘risky’ projects. That’s where organisations such as Experiment, which exists to help secure funding that will allow new ideas to get off the ground, especially ‘the innovative and high-risk ideas with the biggest impact’, come into their own. Acting primarily as a shop window, Experiment advertise projects to would-be sponsors – who in true egalitarian style can be anybody, true citizen science in action – and only charge a fee for their services when the project becomes fully funded. And at 8% of the funding total secured that fee is much lower than normal university overhead charges, which take large shares of research funding provided by more traditional sources such as government-funded research organisations!

Anyway, back to the Azolla project. The modest sum of US$15 000 is sought to generate a draft sequence of the genomes of Azolla and its symbiotic N-fixing bacteria, with a view to understanding the two-way, inter-kingdom language that codes for the molecular machinery underlying this symbiotic partnership, and possibly tailor it to suit our needs. Why? Azolla is a ‘superorganism’, consisting of not just the fern but also a diverse array of symbiotic bacteria. It is this unique microbiota that converts nitrogen into organic forms and makes Azolla a perfect bio-fertilizer. In a world where we are ever more concerned about pollution by increasing use of synthetic fertilisers to increase crop yields to meet an increasing demand for food by a growing human population, you might think that this is the sort of project that should be funded by tax dollars extracted from the populace by governments, rather than expecting their already-taxed citizenry to dig into their own pockets effectively twice over. But it always pays to look at the fine print: ‘Genomic sequencing of this unique Azolla–Nostoc system would cost well under $1 million’. Whilst $15k is well under $1 million, I suspect the final figure required will be much closer to $1 million than $15k, which I guess is what’s hinted at behind the text ‘as a start, the funding of $15 000 will get us reasonably good quality genomes [P. Cuttings’ emphasis] for the Azolla superorganism that can jumpstart various exciting research programs’ in the project’s ‘budget overview’. Maybe more traditional sources of funding will pick up the remaining US$985 000 if the project’s potential is demonstrated on the shoestring budget? If only because, although approximately US$1 million is considerably more than the $15 000 sought, that’s ‘far less than the $8 billion each year that US farmers pay for nitrogen fertilizer’ – much of which finds its way into rivers and streams, damaging delicate water systems. This small step toward potentially helping crops to use less synthetic nitrogen could benefit farmers’ bottom lines, the environment and the prices we pay for food’. Hear, hear! And as I write this on 9th June 2014 there are 32 days left to pledge and add to the then-current total of US$1625. Good luck securing the rest of the funding!

[What we haven’t got space to go into here – but which also emphasises another unique characteristic of Azolla – is the role it played in global cooling in the Arctic Azolla Event of 50 million years ago. A famously fascinating fern, indeed! – Ed.]

[Ed. – by way of follow-up to the above story, we are pleased to learn that BGI (formerly the Beijing Genomics Institute, but now based in Shenzhen) has now supported the Azolla genome project by offering to fulfill all of the necessary sequencing needs free of charge. For an insightful article dealing with the crowdsourcing initiative, and lessons learned therefrom,  see Li and Pryer: Crowdfunding the Azolla fern genome project: a grassroots approach. GigaScience 2014 3:16; doi:10.1186/2047-217X-3-16.]

Clear way ahead for leaf research

Image: Benjamin Blonder/Cleared Leaf Image Database.

Image: Benjamin Blonder/Cleared Leaf Image Database.

Databases (collections of information that are organised ‘so that it can easily be accessed, managed, and updated’) are everywhere these days and, as repositories of data that can be explored by interested parties – and maybe new connections made and insights revealed – they are an extremely useful resource for science. Indeed, access to large data sets is so important to modern-day scientific endeavour that a new journal has recently been established to publish the outcome of such studies. Scientific Data is an open-access, online-only publication for descriptions of scientifically valuable datasets that exists to help you publish, discover and reuse research data and will ‘complement and promote public data repositories’. And in the tradition of science belonging to us all, the journal’s primary article type, the ‘Data Descriptor’, is designed to make your data more discoverable, interpretable and reusable. However, for such journals to achieve their noble and philanthropic aims, the necessary databases of ‘stuff’ need to exist – or be created. One such facility whose birth caught my eye(!) recently was the ClearedLeavesDB, an online database of cleared plant leaf images – its existence and purpose has been highlighted by Abhiram Das et al., who developed it. Leaf vein networks (LVNs) are important to both the structure and function of leaves and there is a growing body of work linking LVN structure to the physiologyecology and evolution of land plants. Recognising the importance of LVNs, the team developed this digital archive that enables online viewing, sharing and disseminating of collections of images of cleared leaves (which usually have the LVNs enhanced) held by both institutions and individual researchers. We applaud this initiative and trust that its objectives – to facilitate research advances in the study of leaf structure and function, to preserve and archive cleared leaf data in an electronic, accessible format, and to promote the exchange of new data and ideas for the plant biology community – are met.

New plant journal

Image: Wikimedia Commons.

Image: Wikimedia Commons.

It just had to happen, but we didn’t know it would take nearly 150 years to come to fruition. And fruition is an apt word because the creation of a new botanical journal has recently been announced by the publishers behind Nature, the world’s premier general science journal. Imaginatively entitled Nature Plants, this new organ is due to be officially published in January 2015 but already has interweb presence with a blog and can be ‘followed’ on such social media as Facebook and Twitter. Its aim is to provide a fully rounded picture of the most accomplished and significant advances in the plant sciences, and will cover ‘all aspects of plants be it their evolution, development or metabolism, their interactions with the environment, or their societal significance’. Furthermore, along with original research, Nature Plants will also deliver ‘Commentaries, Reviews, News and Views’ from across the full range of disciplines concerned with the plant sciences (i.e. a bit like the Annals of Botany…). However, with topics covered in the journal including (deep breath) ‘agronomy, genomics, biochemistry, metabolism, biofuels, metabolomics, biophysics, molecular biology, cell biology, photosynthesis, defence physiology, development, plant–microbe interactions, disease resistance, proteomics ecology, secondary metabolism, economics, sociology, evolution, symbiosis, food security, systems biology, forestry and water use’, I do hope they leave something for other – more established – botanical journals, such as the Annals of Botany!

[Have others heard that the original Nature – in keeping with its soon-to-be somewhat impoverished science coverage – is being retitled Nature Cosmology, Palaentology and Non-botany? Whilst we wish this new venture well, it will be interesting to see if anybody publishes in the new journal because, and despite the undoubted cachet and kudos associated with the word Nature in the article’s citation, it won’t have an Impact Factor (IF) for a few years. Now, who wants to risk having publications on their CV in journals with no IF with potential damage to promotion prospects and career advancement (not that IFs should be used for such purposes – see e.g. EASE statement on inappropriate use of Impact Factors? Just saying. – Ed.]

Something fishy in the veggie patch…

Image: Nada Meeks, www.fineartamerica.com.

Image: Nada Meeks, www.fineartamerica.com.

The ‘alpha’ category is widely regarded as the best of its kind; think of alpha (males) in the context of animal behaviour and Aldous Huxley’s Brave New World, an α+ grade on your exams or the sports cars from Alfa Romeo. But omega – right at the other end of the Greek alphabet – is also merit-worthy, especially when it’s omega fatty acids (FAs), which are polyunsaturated FAs needed for human metabolism. However, since they cannot be made de novo by the human body – and are therefore considered ‘essential’ – it is necessary to acquire them in the diet.

Two of the three essential omega FAs needed for human metabolism – Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) – are derived from marine sources, such as fish. The third – alpha-Linolenic acid (ALA – which, despite its name, is still an omega fatty acid!) comes from plant products and is used in the body to produce EPA, which in turn is used to generate DHA. One way of getting your essential omegas is to consume milk produced by cows that have grazed on fresh grass/red clover, whose milk has been shown to increase in ALA as a result. But if you are milk-averse or lactose intolerant this won’t work for you. Another dietary strategy is to eat fish. However, with concerns about dwindling fish stocks, and recognising that fish themselves actually get their omegas from the algae that they have ingested, a more imaginative – and plant-based – avenue is being promoted.

Using a GMO (genetically modified organism) Noemi Ruiz-Lopez et al. have successfully demonstrated high-level accumulation of fish-oil omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in a transgenic (which includes at least one gene from an alga…) oilseed crop plant. Using heterologous genes (i.e. genes from organisms different to the host crop species) the Rothamsted Research (Harpenden, UK) -based team have developed Camelina sativa (like arabidopsis, a member of the Brassicaceae) whose seeds accumulate up to 12 % EPA and 14 % DHA (which levels are equivalent to those in fish oils). On the back of expectations that this could represent a sustainable, terrestrial source of these fatty acids, Rothamsted Research has applied to Defra (the UK government’s Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs) ‘to conduct a field trial of Camelina plants that have been genetically modified to produce omega-3 oils that may provide health, environmental and societal benefits’. Interestingly, one of the enzymes in the 5-gene cassette used to genetically manipulate EPA levels in the plant is derived from Phytophthora infestans – the potato blight-causing oomycete (definitely NOT a fungus) which infamously caused so much devastation to the potato crop of Europe in the 19th century.  Maybe this is an opportunity for that notorious plant pest to do some good for a change! And something to ponder as you fry your naturally omega FA-enriched fish in GM-enhanced camelina oil…? Regardless, let us hope that false flax (an alternative common name for the plant) does not give false hope but, rather, provides ‘gold-of-pleasure’ (another of its common names). And that this 21st century fish oil project has more to offer than the 19th century’s over-promising, under-delivering pedlars of ‘snake oil’! Here’s a video showcasing the work at the 2014 UKPSF meeting.

[For more on the proposed GM trials, there is a dedicated Questions and Answers Section on the Rothamsted Research website. But what we really want to know is whether there is a hidden agenda to use the GM-crop to produce jet fuel for the F-22 raptor supersonic fighter aircraft, which apparently can fly very well using biofuel produced from Camelina… In which case, maybe GM stands for Go Mach – Ed.]

[Update – since this piece was originally penned, not only has the GM trial been approved but it has taken place and the crop harvested. It is anticipated that the results will be published in an open access journal later this year – Ed.]

Dodgy photos dog phytology

Image: Wikimedia Commons.

Image: Wikimedia Commons.

It has oft been claimed that a picture is worth a thousand words. In the case of certain images in Klementina Kakar et al.’s study entitled ‘CLASP-mediated cortical microtubule organization guides PIN polarization axis’ it seems quite clear that many more than a thousand words have been written about them. Why? The normally genteel world of botanical research has been shaken, stirred and shocked to its very core by a retraction of that paper – which purported to identify the molecular machinery that connects the organisation of microtubules to the regulation of the axis of polarisation of auxin-transporting PIN proteins (which membrane-sited molecules are needed for transport of the plant hormone auxin across plasma membranes and thereby help to maintain polarity of growth and development within the plant). Relating as it does to fundamental aspects of plant growth and development and such phenomena as gravitropism, this is an important finding and understandably published in a very high-impact and influential journal. So what’s gone awry? A retraction is, after all, a very serious state of affairs. Well, and in the words of the same four authors of the original paper, ‘after re-examination of this Letter [this is how Nature articles are formally described], concerns with some of the reported data were raised. It was found that two confocal images were near-identical in panels of Figure 3 and two confocal images were re-used in panels of Figure 4, and that some gel images were inappropriately generated by cutting and pasting of non-adjacent bands. Therefore, we feel that the most responsible action is to retract the paper. We sincerely apologize for any adverse consequences that may have resulted from the paper’s publication’. For more on this, visit the various items at the Retraction Watch* website. Fortunately – for those unaware of this from media reports, etc, but who might otherwise come across the article in their literature searches, the PubMed entry for the original Nature paper does make mention of its subsequent retraction, and provides a link to the retraction notice. Although I don’t know if the paper’s retracted status is indicated on all search engines… However, in the scrabble to find appropriate literature to cite in one’s work, one might overlook that notification. Is this therefore a weakness in the otherwise laudable retraction process/system whereby subsequent readers of those papers may not be aware of their retraction? Maybe we need a form of historical revisionism reminiscent of the rewriting of history in George Orwell’s classic novel Nineteen Eighty-Four to expunge such items from the record totally so that they’re never ever found…? Hmm, what would historians of science make of that? Do let us know!

* Retraction Watch is a blog that reports on retractions of scientific papers. Launched in August 2010 it is produced by science writers Ivan Oransky (executive editor of Reuters Health) and Adam Marcus (managing editor of Anesthesiology News).

[For more on the costs associated with retractions, check out Tracy Vence’s commentary at The Scientist.  And with such sobering news, if you are concerned that retractions can unduly affect one’s career, Virginia Gewin has some words of comfort. But, if you want more retraction stories, why not check out last year’s ‘Top 10’? – Ed.]

Seeing the Forest and the Trees: Research on Plant Science Teaching and Learning

CBE Life Sci Educ The September issue of CBE—Life Sciences Education is a Special Focus edition on plant science education:

Plant Behavior. CBE Life Sci Educ September 2, 2014 13:363-368; doi:10.1187/cbe.14-06-0100
Plants are a huge and diverse group of organisms ranging from microscopic marine phytoplankton to enormous terrestrial trees. Stunning, and yet some of us take plants for granted. In this plant issue of LSE, WWW.Life Sciences Education focuses on a botanical topic that most people, even biologists, do not think about—plant behavior.

Book Review: Plant Biology for Young Children. CBE Life Sci Educ September 2, 2014 13:369-370; doi:10.1187/cbe.14-06-0093
My Life as a Plant is an activity book targeted toward helping young children see the importance, relevance, and beauty of plants in our daily lives. The book succeeds at introducing children to plant biology in a fun, inquiry-based, and appropriately challenging way.

Understanding Early Elementary Children’s Conceptual Knowledge of Plant Structure and Function through Drawings. CBE Life Sci Educ September 2, 2014 13:375-386; doi:10.1187/cbe.13-12-0230
We present the results of an early elementary study (K–1) that used children’s drawings to examine children’s understanding of plant structure and function.

Effects of a Research-Infused Botanical Curriculum on Undergraduates’ Content Knowledge, STEM Competencies, and Attitudes toward Plant Sciences. CBE Life Sci Educ September 2, 2014 13:387-396; doi:10.1187/cbe.13-12-0231
This research-infused botanical curriculum increased students’ knowledge and awareness of plant science topics, improved their scientific writing, and enhanced their statistical knowledge.

Connections between Student Explanations and Arguments from Evidence about Plant Growth. CBE Life Sci Educ September 2, 2014 13:397-409; doi:10.1187/cbe.14-02-0028
In an analysis of 22 middle and high school student interviews, we found that many students reinterpret the hypotheses and results of standard investigations of plant growth to match their own understandings. Students may benefit from instructional strategies that scaffold their explanations and inquiry about how plants grow.

Beyond Punnett Squares: Student Word Association and Explanations of Phenotypic Variation through an Integrative Quantitative Genetics Unit Investigating Anthocyanin Inheritance and Expression in Brassica rapa Fast Plants. CBE Life Sci Educ September 2, 2014 13:410-424; doi:10.1187/cbe.13-12-0232
This study explores shifts in student word association and explanations of phenotypic variation through an integrative quantitative genetics unit using Brassica rapa Fast Plants.

Optimizing Learning of Scientific Category Knowledge in the Classroom: The Case of Plant Identification. CBE Life Sci Educ September 2, 2014 13:425-436; doi:10.1187/cbe.13-11-0224
The software program Visual Learning—Plant Identification offers a solution to problems in category learning, such as plant identification. It uses well-established learning principles, including development of perceptual expertise in an active-learning format, spacing of practice, interleaving of examples, and testing effects to train conceptual learning.

Attention “Blinks” Differently for Plants and Animals. CBE Life Sci Educ September 2, 2014 13:437-443; doi:10.1187/cbe.14-05-0080
We use an established paradigm in visual cognition, the “attentional blink,” to demonstrate that our attention is captured more slowly by plants than by animals. This suggests fundamental differences in how the visual system processes plants, which may contribute to plant blindness considered broadly.