The genus Rosa (with 150–200 species) is widely distributed throughout temperate and sub-tropical habitats from the northern hemisphere to tropical Asia, with only one tropical African species. In order to better understand the evolution of roses, this study examines infrageneric relationships with respect to conventional taxonomy, considers the extent of allopolyploidization and infers macroevolutionary processes that have led to the current distribution of the genus.
The ancestral area reconstruction suggests that despite an early presence on the American continent, most extant American species are the results of a later re-colonization from Asia, probably through the Bering Land Bridge. The results suggest more recent exchanges between Asia and western North America than with eastern North America. The current distribution of roses from the Synstylae lineage in Europe is probably the result of a migration from Asia approx. 30 million years ago, after the closure of the Turgai strait. Directions for a new sectional classification of the genus Rosa are proposed, and the analyses provide an evolutionary framework for future studies on this notoriously difficult genus.
Fougère-Danezan, M., Joly, S., Bruneau, A., Gao, X. F., & Zhang, L. B. (2014) Phylogeny and biogeography of wild roses with specific attention to polyploids. Annals of Botany, December 29, 2014, doi: 10.1093/aob/mcu245
A rainbow rose. Photo by Ryan Amos
Valentine’s Day is here and unless you share the cynics’ view that this is a holiday invented by the flower industry, you might set off to buy a bunch of flowers for your other half on the day. Next time, why not do something completely different this year and create your own unique flowers?
The procedure is very simple (but requires planning ahead!). You will need white flowers and water stained with food colouring. Cut off the flower stems at an angle and leave them in a glass with the dyed water to soak up the fluid over night.
If you are a botany ninja and up for a serious challenge, have a go at creating a rainbow rose. Peter van de Werken (‘River Flowers‘) developed the technique based on his knowledge about plant phyllotaxy. Rose petals are arranged in a Fibonacci spiral. This means that petal number one and six will be on the same vertical imaginary line. When you cut the stem vertically into four equal parts and transfer each end into a different glass with coloured water, the petals will take up the dye depending on their position in the spiral. Pretty, isn’t it?
“Rainbow Rose” reference: António A. Monteiro, Roberto Lopez and Jules Janick. “Gilding the Lilies: Rainbow Roses and Confetti Poinsettias“. Chronica Horticulturae – Volume 48, Number 1, 2008.
Photo: Rainbow Rose by Ryan Amos. Licenced under a Creative Commons BY-SA licence.
Rainer Zenz/Wikimedia Commons
CITES (the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora – apparently, also known as the Washington Convention) is a treaty whose aim is to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten the survival of the species in the wild. Enacted in 1975, it offers varying degrees of protection to approx. 28 000 plant species.
The trouble is that the organisms ‘covered’ by CITES are – by definition – endangered and often in short supply. Consequently – sadly, economics applies in the biological arena as well as more human-sociological ones – those biologics are often in high demand, as ornaments, etc, in homes, offices, conference venues… So a CITES tag can actually be viewed as a price tag, the more highly endangered – and ‘cited’ – the organism, the more valuable. And there are ne’er do wells in the world for whom trade in such exotic taxa is a very lucrative business (allegedly).
Keeping a lid on this aspect of the black economy is difficult and policing the movements of the affected organisms is not necessarily the world’s number one priority. However, a relatively recent innovative procedure may just help to track such portable commodities as expensive botanics. Andrea Luvisi et al. expound on the merits of embedding microchips within ornamental shrubs (HortTechnology 20: 1037–1042, 2010). Developing the concept with roses they found that such shrubs should be safelytagged – internally – with a RFID (radiofrequency identification) microchip as early as the nursery phase, and without negative effects on plant appearance. We look forward to this being rolled out to more endangered plants in the near future. And let’s hope this news is timely enough to help the 75 vascular plants (along with 13 amphibians, 17 beetles, 81 crayfish, and 6 non-vascular plants…) whose endangered/protected status in the USA – under its own Endangered Species Act – is due to be reviewed by the United States’ Fish and Wildlife Service (26 Sept. 2011 news release). Hmm, chips with everything? Now you’re talking!