August Image: Apple Stigma

Detail of the stigma of a flower of apple, Malus × domestica

Detail of the stigma of a flower of apple. Click to expand.

This month the inset cover image shows a detail of the stigma of a flower of apple, Malus × domestica. The acquisition of stigmatic receptivity is concomitant with secretion of arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs, strained green) into the intercellular spaces between cell walls (blue). The presence of AGPs in the pistil has been shown in divergent species, from monocots and eudicots to early-divergent angiosperms, and hence this finding opens a way for an understanding of glycoprotein evolution modulating pollen–pistil interactions in angiosperms. See Losada and Herrero.


Dave Frost is the Managing Editor of Annals of Botany. You can contact our Editorial Office at

1 Response

  1. Maria says:

    They can climb well, so they are able to go up trees and other tall plants.
    For applying on the head first spray your hand and then rub onto dogs head to prevent eye irritation and ingesting the chemical by your dog.
    You’ll find particular toxins which destroy bugs, however, you must be cautious as improper use of chemical substances could be harmful for your well being.

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