A wealth of information on evolution and pollination of Mediterranean orchids (mostly tribe Orchideae) has been generated in the last two decades. Inda et al. integrate this with a well-supported phylogenetic tree to investigate Orchideae diversification in a temporal framework, and find that nomenclatural changes recently proposed in Orchideae are compatible with the phylogenetic analysis. The results suggest that diversification of Orchidineae in the Mediterranean basin took place between the Mid-Miocene and Pleistocene and that ancestral forms were hymenopteran-pollinated, food-deceptive plants. A possible link is considered between orchid evolution and Hymenoptera diversification.